Allergy testing, also known as skin, prick, or blood testing, is a method for determining what substances a person is allergic to.
Skin allergy testing is the most common, reliable, and relatively painless form of allergy testing. A very small amount of certain allergens is put into your skin by making a small indentation or “prick” on the surface of your skin. A skin allergy test determines specific allergens based on skin reactions. You don’t have to wait long to find out what is triggering your allergies. Reactions occur within about 15 minutes.
If you have allergies, just a little swelling will occur where the allergen(s) which you are allergic to was introduced. For instance, if you are allergic to ragweed pollen but not to cats, only the ragweed allergen will cause a little swelling or itching. The spot where the cat allergen was applied will remain normal.
Blood tests are generally used when skin tests might be unsafe or won’t work, such as if you are taking certain medications or have a skin condition that may interfere with skin testing.
There are methods of allergy testing that the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) believes are not useful or effective. These tests are performed by non-allergy practitioners or people who call themselves healthcare professionals but lack formal training and national board certification in the field of allergy and immunology.